Saturday, March 4, 2017

Origin and Evolution of Roman "Crucifixion" - Part 2.

Latin Phrases for Roman “Crucifixion.”

Part 1 is here.

I/Ibis in Crucem! including maxumam (the most) and malam (wicked) as modifiers for crucem (acc. of crux: stake or pole, with or without transom—with a transom the pole resembles a T or a cross, or most closely a utility pole or a mast).  I/Ibis (ire) means "go!"  The preposition `in’ with an accusative (direct object) means into, onto, up to, down to, to, over to, towards—a pregnant construction with a sense of entry implied.

With acc. `crucem’ and `in’: agere (lead, drive, push forwards), figere (fix in or on, fasten), eo/ire (go), suffigere (fix or fasten underneath), tollere (lift up, hoist), ferre (bring, bear, carry), suffere (bear, carry underneath).  The word `in’ with an accusative has the same meaning as in I in crucem!

With abl. `cruce’ and `in’: figere (fix or fasten in or on), affigere (fix or fasten on, usually as a brand), defigere (fix or fasten down onto, plant), offigere (fasten to or over against). The word `in’ with instrumental ablative means in, on, at—a locational sense, but often also includes the instrumental sense, too (ex.: in hoc signo vinces [with this sign you will conquer]).

With dat. `cruci’: figere, affigere, defigere, offigere (?), dare.

Wm. A Oldfather writes:
The regular expressions are agere, figere, affigere, defigere, offigere, suffigere, tollere, less frequently dare, ferre (and maybe) suffere. Rarely of the criminal, ascendere, excurrere, salire. Only use of suspendere are: Ovid Ibis 298; Polybius 8.23.3 [translation]; Seneca Epistulae 7.4; Constantine Digest 48.19.28.15; Seneca De Consolatione ad Marciam 20.3; Tertullian Adv. Jud. 10; Lactant. Inst. iv.26.34; Hillary De Trin. X.13, Supplicium Servile: Cicero In Verrem 2, V, 12, 169; 170; Suetonius Galba 9; Tacitus Histories 4.11; Tacitus Histories 2.72; Val. Max II.7.12; Vulcac. vita Avid. Cass. 4.6; Capitolinus vita Opil. Macrin. 2.2; Lactant Inst. IV.26, 29; Arnob. Adv. Nat. 1.36.
Andrew Breen writes: “in crucem tollere, in crucem agere, in crucem ferre, crucem ascendere, crucem salire, in crucem insultare, crucem statuere, etc.”

Whittaker’s Words’ definitions for ascendere, salire, insultare, statuere:
ascendere: climb; go/climb up; mount, scale; mount up, embark; rise, ascend, move upward; 
salio [salire]: leap, jump, move suddenly/spasmodically (part of body under stress), twitch, spurt, discharge, be ejected under force (water/fluid); mount/cover (by stud). 
insulto [insultare]: leap/jump/spring (in/on); dance/trample (on); enter with a leap; insult; behave insultingly, mock/scoff/jeer (at); assault/attack. 
statuere: set up, establish, set, place, build; decide, think.
Other phrases include: cruce / in cruce diffindere (to cleave asunder on a stake or divide with a pole with a transom), sedere cruce / in cruce, (to sit on / sit by means of a stake or “piercing cross”), equitare in crucem (to “ride” a stake or a pole with a transom), in cruce pendere (to hang on / hang by means of a pole with a transom or stake).


Sources:

-          [1] Andrew Edwasd Breen, A Harmonized Exposition of the Four Gospels. Rochester, NY: John P Smith Printing Co., 1980 (Vol 4, pp. 508, 509, 512). [Google Books search “incampo martio crucem”, accessed 5 March 2017]

[2] Wm. A Oldfather, “Livy i.26,” Transactions and Proceedings of the American Philological Association 39 (1908), (pp. 49-72, [p. 60 n. 1])

[3] Lewis and Short, A Latin Dictionary. Founded on Andrews' edition of Freund's Latin dictionary. revised, enlarged, and in great part rewritten by. Charlton T. Lewis, Ph.D. and. Charles Short, LL.D. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1879. http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/hopper/text?doc=Perseus:text:1999.04.0059 accessed 4 March, 2017

[4] William Whittaker, William Whittaker’s Words. South Bend, IN: University of Notre Dame (1993-2007). http://archives.nd.edu/words.html accessed 4 March, 2017

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